Course Home - Course #97542: Child Abuse Identification and Reporting: The Pennsylvania Requirement - NetCE (2023)

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In 2020, there were 4,593 substantiated reports to child abuse in Pennsylvania. Healthcare professionals, regardless of their discipline or field, are in a unique position to assist in the identification, education, and prevention of child abuse and neglect. This course describes how victims of abuse can be accurately identified and provides the community resources available in the state of Pennsylvania for child abuse victims. Mandated reporter laws will also be outlined.

Education Category: Ethics - Human Rights
Release Date: 08/01/2022
Expiration Date: 07/31/2025

Table of Contents

  11. Works Cited
  12. Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations


This course is approved by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services to fulfill the requirement for 3 hours of Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting (Act 31) training for healthcare professionals applying for licensure. Provider number CACE000020.

This course is approved by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services to fulfill the requirement for 2 hours of Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting (Act 31) training for healthcare professionals renewing their license. Provider number CACE000020.


This course is designed for all Pennsylvania physicians, physician assistants, nurses, social workers, counselors, pharmacists, and allied health professionals required to complete child abuse education.

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Accreditations & Approvals

In support of improving patient care, NetCE is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team. NetCE has been approved by NBCC as an Approved Continuing Education Provider, ACEP No. 6361. Programs that do not qualify for NBCC credit are clearly identified. NetCE is solely responsible for all aspects of the programs. As a Jointly Accredited Organization, NetCE is approved to offer social work continuing education by the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB) Approved Continuing Education (ACE) program. Organizations, not individual courses, are approved under this program. State and provincial regulatory boards have the final authority to determine whether an individual course may be accepted for continuing education credit. NetCE maintains responsibility for this course. Continuing Education (CE) credits for psychologists are provided through the co-sponsorship of the American Psychological Association (APA) Office of Continuing Education in Psychology (CEP). The APA CEP Office maintains responsibility for the content of the programs. NetCE is accredited by the International Accreditors for Continuing Education and Training (IACET). NetCE complies with the ANSI/IACET Standard, which is recognized internationally as a standard of excellence in instructional practices. As a result of this accreditation, NetCE is authorized to issue the IACET CEU. NetCE is recognized by the New York State Education Department's State Board for Social Work as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed social workers #SW-0033.This course is considered self-study, as defined by the New York State Board for Social Work. NetCE is recognized by the New York State Education Department's State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors #MHC-0021. This course is considered self-study by the New York State Board of Mental Health Counseling. NetCE is recognized by the New York State Education Department's State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed marriage and family therapists. #MFT-0015.This course is considered self-study by the New York State Board of Marriage and Family Therapy. Materials that are included in this course may include interventions and modalities that are beyond the authorized practice of licensed master social work and licensed clinical social work in New York. As a licensed professional, you are responsible for reviewing the scope of practice, including activities that are defined in law as beyond the boundaries of practice for an LMSW and LCSW. A licensee who practices beyond the authorized scope of practice could be charged with unprofessional conduct under the Education Law and Regents Rules.

Designations of Credit

This activity was planned by and for the healthcare team, and learners will receive 3 Interprofessional Continuing Education (IPCE) credit(s) for learning and change. NetCE designates this enduring material for a maximum of 3 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 3 ANCC contact hour(s). NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 3.6 hours for Alabama nurses. NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 1.5 NBCC clock hour(s). Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 3 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit. Completion of this course constitutes permission to share the completion data with ACCME. Social workers participating in this intermediate to advanced course will receive 3 Clinical continuing education clock hours. NetCE designates this activity for 3 ACPE credit(s). ACPE Universal Activity Number: JA4008164-0000-22-013-H04-P. Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the learner to earn credit toward the CME and/or Self-Assessment requirements of the American Board of Surgery's Continuous Certification program. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit learner completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABS credit. This activity has been approved for the American Board of Anesthesiology’s® (ABA) requirements for Part II: Lifelong Learning and Self-Assessment of the American Board of Anesthesiology’s (ABA) redesigned Maintenance of Certification in Anesthesiology Program® (MOCA®), known as MOCA 2.0®. Please consult the ABA website,, for a list of all MOCA 2.0 requirements. Maintenance of Certification in Anesthesiology Program® and MOCA® are registered certification marks of the American Board of Anesthesiology®. MOCA 2.0® is a trademark of the American Board of Anesthesiology®. Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the activity with individual assessments of the participant and feedback to the participant, enables the participant to earn 3 MOC points in the American Board of Pediatrics' (ABP) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABP MOC credit. This activity has been designated for 3 Lifelong Learning (Part II) credits for the American Board of Pathology Continuing Certification Program. Through an agreement between the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, medical practitioners participating in the Royal College MOC Program may record completion of accredited activities registered under the ACCME's "CME in Support of MOC" program in Section 3 of the Royal College's MOC Program. AACN Synergy CERP Category B. NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 3 credit(s). NetCE is authorized by IACET to offer 0.3 CEU(s) for this program.

Individual State Nursing Approvals

In addition to states that accept ANCC, NetCE is approved as a provider of continuing education in nursing by: Alabama, Provider #ABNP0353, (valid through July 29, 2025); Alabama, Provider #ABNP0353, (valid through July 29,2025); Arkansas, Provider #50-2405; California, BRN Provider #CEP9784; California, LVN Provider #V10662; California, PT Provider #V10842; District of Columbia, Provider #50-2405; Florida, Provider #50-2405; Georgia, Provider #50-2405; Kentucky, Provider #7-0054 through 12/31/2023; South Carolina, Provider #50-2405; South Carolina, Provider #50-2405. West Virginia RN and APRN, Provider #50-2405.

Individual State Behavioral Health Approvals

In addition to states that accept ASWB, NetCE is approved as a provider of continuing education by the following state boards: Alabama State Board of Social Work Examiners, Provider #0515; Florida Board of Clinical Social Work, Marriage and Family Therapy and Mental Health Counseling, CE Broker Provider #50-2405; Illinois Division of Professional Regulation for Social Workers, License #159.001094; Illinois Division of Professional Regulation for Licensed Professional and Clinical Counselors, License #197.000185; Illinois Division of Professional Regulation for Marriage and Family Therapists, License #168.000190;

Special Approvals

This course is approved by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services to fulfill the requirement for 3 hours of Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting (Act 31) training for healthcare professionals applying for licensure. Provider number CACE000020. This course is approved by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services to fulfill the requirement for 2 hours of Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting (Act 31) training for healthcare professionals renewing their license. Provider number CACE000020. This activity is designed to comply with the requirements of California Assembly Bill 1195, Cultural and Linguistic Competency.

Course Objective

The purpose of this course is to enable healthcare professionals in all practice settings to define child abuse and identify the children who are affected by violence. This course describes how a victim can be accurately diagnosed and identifies the community resources available in the state of Pennsylvania for child abuse victims.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:

  1. Summarize the historical context of child abuse.
  2. Discuss the emergence of the child welfare system in Pennsylvania.
  3. Define child abuse and neglect and identify the different forms of child abuse and neglect.
  4. Discuss the scope of child abuse and neglect in the United States and specifically in Pennsylvania.
  5. Review the mandatory reporting process and mandated reporters in the state of Pennsylvania, including possible barriers to reporting suspected cases of child abuse.


Alice Yick Flanagan, PhD, MSW, received her Master’s in Social Work from Columbia University, School of Social Work. She has clinical experience in mental health in correctional settings, psychiatric hospitals, and community health centers. In 1997, she received her PhD from UCLA, School of Public Policy and Social Research. Dr. Yick Flanagan completed a year-long post-doctoral fellowship at Hunter College, School of Social Work in 1999. In that year she taught the course Research Methods and Violence Against Women to Masters degree students, as well as conducting qualitative research studies on death and dying in Chinese American families.

Previously acting as a faculty member at Capella University and Northcentral University, Dr. Yick Flanagan is currently a contributing faculty member at Walden University, School of Social Work, and a dissertation chair at Grand Canyon University, College of Doctoral Studies, working with Industrial Organizational Psychology doctoral students. She also serves as a consultant/subject matter expert for the New York City Board of Education and publishing companies for online curriculum development, developing practice MCAT questions in the area of psychology and sociology. Her research focus is on the area of culture and mental health in ethnic minority communities.

Faculty Disclosure

Contributing faculty, Alice Yick Flanagan, PhD, MSW, has disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned.

Division Planners

John M. Leonard, MD

Jane C. Norman, RN, MSN, CNE, PhD

James Trent, PhD

Randall L. Allen, PharmD

Division Planners Disclosure

The division planners have disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned.

Director of Development and Academic Affairs

Sarah Campbell

Director Disclosure Statement

The Director of Development and Academic Affairs has disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned.

About the Sponsor

The purpose of NetCE is to provide challenging curricula to assist healthcare professionals to raise their levels of expertise while fulfilling their continuing education requirements, thereby improving the quality of healthcare.

Our contributing faculty members have taken care to ensure that the information and recommendations are accurate and compatible with the standards generally accepted at the time of publication. The publisher disclaims any liability, loss or damage incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the contents. Participants are cautioned about the potential risk of using limited knowledge when integrating new techniques into practice.

Disclosure Statement

It is the policy of NetCE not to accept commercial support. Furthermore, commercial interests are prohibited from distributing or providing access to this activity to learners.

Technical Requirements

Supported browsers for Windows include Microsoft Internet Explorer 9.0 and up, Mozilla Firefox 3.0 and up, Opera 9.0 and up, and Google Chrome. Supported browsers for Macintosh include Safari, Mozilla Firefox 3.0 and up, Opera 9.0 and up, and Google Chrome. Other operating systems and browsers that include complete implementations of ECMAScript edition 3 and CSS 2.0 may work, but are not supported. Supported browsers must utilize the TLS encryption protocol v1.1 or v1.2 in order to connect to pages that require a secured HTTPS connection. TLS v1.0 is not supported.

Implicit Bias in Health Care

The role of implicit biases on healthcare outcomes has become a concern, as there is some evidence that implicit biases contribute to health disparities, professionals' attitudes toward and interactions with patients, quality of care, diagnoses, and treatment decisions. This may produce differences in help-seeking, diagnoses, and ultimately treatments and interventions. Implicit biases may also unwittingly produce professional behaviors, attitudes, and interactions that reduce patients' trust and comfort with their provider, leading to earlier termination of visits and/or reduced adherence and follow-up. Disadvantaged groups are marginalized in the healthcare system and vulnerable on multiple levels; health professionals' implicit biases can further exacerbate these existing disadvantages.

Interventions or strategies designed to reduce implicit bias may be categorized as change-based or control-based. Change-based interventions focus on reducing or changing cognitive associations underlying implicit biases. These interventions might include challenging stereotypes. Conversely, control-based interventions involve reducing the effects of the implicit bias on the individual's behaviors. These strategies include increasing awareness of biased thoughts and responses. The two types of interventions are not mutually exclusive and may be used synergistically.


How is the child welfare system characterized in Pennsylvania? ›

How is the child welfare system in Pennsylvania characterized? It is monitored by CAPTA. The child welfare system is founded on the criminal justice model. It is supervised by the state and administered by the various local county agencies.

How do I make a childline report in PA? ›

The toll-free hotline, 1-800-932-0313, is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week to receive reports of suspected child abuse.

Who is a mandated reporter in PA? ›

Mandated reporters are certain adults, who are legally required to report suspected child abuse if they have reasonable cause to suspect that a child is a victim of child abuse. The law requires that the mandated reporter identify themselves and where they can be reached.

What are three 3 indicators of neglect? ›

Emotional abuse

fear of the dark, not wanting to go to bed, bedwetting or nightmares. lying or stealing. lack of trust in adults. poor self-image/self-esteem, poor academic performance, poor peer relationships.

What are the four core conditions in child welfare practice? ›

3.6 Child welfare worker evaluates the functioning of the family as a unit including cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional strengths and limitations of each family member, and resources available to the family.

What is the biggest problem facing the child welfare system? ›

Substance abuse, inadequate housing, health needs, parental incarceration, and racial discrimination are just some of the issues that challenge the capacity of the child welfare system and its staff to provide adequate services to the families and children it serves.

What are the 2 child welfare services in PA? ›

County Children and Youth Agencies. National Child Welfare Resources. Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resources.

Can CPS tell you who reported you in PA? ›

Usually the identity of the person who filed the report remains confidential. Typically CPS and/or police do not share information with anybody about the progress of an investigation – even with a protective parent.

What is PA child mandated reporting? ›

Mandated reporters must make an immediate and direct report of suspected child abuse to ChildLine either electronically at www. compass. or by calling 1-800- 932-0313.

What does a mandated reporter have to report in PA? ›

Mandated reporters, by law, must report suspected abuse when you have reason to suspect on the basis of medical, professional or other training and experience, that the child has been abused.

What CPS can and Cannot do in Pennsylvania? ›

CPS can remove children from the home.

They need to have a court order or be able to prove that the child is in imminent danger in order to remove a child. Imminent danger could include things like physical harm, sexual contact, neglect, or firearms left in the open.

What are unfounded reports of abuse? ›

If a reported crime is investigated by law enforcement authorities and found to be false or baseless, meaning that the crime did not occur or was never attempted, the crime is “unfounded”. Only sworn or commissioned law enforcement personnel may unfound a crime.

What protection do mandated reporters have in PA? ›

All persons are protected from civil and criminal liability if acting in good faith when reporting, cooperating and consulting in investigations, testifying in proceedings as a result of the report, taking photographs, arranging for medical tests and x-rays, taking a child into protective custody (as allowed under the ...

What are the 5 signs of emotional abuse? ›

5 Signs of Emotional Abuse
  • They are Hyper-Critical or Judgmental Towards You. ...
  • They Ignore Boundaries or Invade Your Privacy. ...
  • They are Possessive and/or Controlling. ...
  • They are Manipulative. ...
  • They Often Dismiss You and Your Feelings.
May 23, 2017

What are 6 behaviors that indicate emotional abuse? ›

Examples include intimidation, coercion, ridiculing, harassment, treating an adult like a child, isolating an adult from family, friends, or regular activity, use of silence to control behavior, and yelling or swearing which results in mental distress. Signs of emotional abuse.

What are the four stages of neglect? ›

Leaving the children hungry, dirty, unsafe, alone, and unattended are some of the characteristics of neglect. Four types of neglect include physical, educational, and emotional. The difference between abuse and neglect is that abuse causes bodily harm while neglect is failure to offer care to a child or a person.

What is toxic three in child protection? ›

The term 'Toxic Trio' has been used to describe the issues of domestic abuse, mental ill-health and substance misuse which have been identified as common features of families where harm to children and adults has occurred.

What are 4 signs a child is being neglected? ›

Living in an unsuitable environment (e.g. no heating, messy) Being left home alone for long periods of time. Taking on the role of a carer for other family members. Changes in behaviour, such as becoming clingy, aggressive, withdrawn, depressed or anxious, displaying obsessive behaviour.

What are the three 3 forms of child neglect physical ________________ and emotional? ›

Child neglect can include physical neglect (failing to provide food, clothing, shelter, or other physical necessities), emotional neglect (not providing love, comfort, or affection), and medical or educational neglect (not providing access to needed medical care or education) or supervisory neglect (failure to ...

What is the most common form of child maltreatment? ›

Neglect is the most common form of child abuse. Physical abuse may include beating, shaking, burning, and biting.

What are the four key areas of children's rights? ›

The Convention on the Rights of the Child comprises four main pillars - the right to survival, the right to protection, the right to development and the right to participation.

What are the 5 protective factors child maltreatment? ›

Five Protective Factors are the foundation of the Strengthening Families Approach: parental resilience, social connections, concrete support in times of need, knowledge of parenting and child development, and social and emotional competence of children.

What state is top in child welfare? ›

State Rankings on Overall Child Well-Being
  • 1st quartile. Massachusetts 2. New Hampshire 3. Minnesota 4. Utah 5. ...
  • 2nd quartile. Virginia 14. Wyoming 15. Washington 16. Colorado 17. ...
  • 3rd quartile. Oregon 27. Missouri 28. Indiana 29. New York 30. ...
  • 4th quartile. South Carolina 40. Oklahoma 41. Alaska 42. West Virginia 43.

Which group of children is most at risk of child maltreatment? ›

Chronological age of child: 50% of abused children are younger than 3 years old; 90% of children who die from abuse are younger than 1 year old; firstborn children are most vulnerable. Low self-esteem: Neglectful parents often neglect themselves and see themselves as worthless people.

Who has the best child welfare system? ›

The top 10 states for overall child well-being

The top state, Massachusetts, ranked high in all four areas measured by the foundation.

What is the law for a child bedroom in PA? ›

(a) Each single bedroom shall have at least 70 square feet of floor space per child measured wall to wall, including space occupied by furniture.

What is the child abandonment law in PA? ›

While there is no specific Pennsylvania statute dealing with child abandonment, the offense is charged and punished as endangering the welfare of a child under Pennsylvania Code, Section 4304(1), and may be charged as a first-degree misdemeanor with a potential of up to five years in prison, or a third-degree felony, ...

How long does Cys have to investigate in PA? ›

(1) Investigations to determine whether to accept the family for service and whether a report is founded, indicated or unfounded shall be completed within 60 days in all cases.

What is false CPS allegations in PA? ›

§ 4906.1.

A person commits a misdemeanor of the second degree if the person intentionally or knowingly makes a false report of child abuse under 23 Pa. C.S. Ch. 63 (relating to child protective services) or intentionally or knowingly induces a child to make a false claim of child abuse under 23 Pa.

How long does CPS have to investigate in PA? ›

Most investigations are wrapped up within 30 days. However, if this is not possible, CPS must document the reasons why it must take longer and should complete the investigation within 60 days.

Can you press charges for false CPS report in PA? ›

You can file a defamation lawsuit against someone who made false claims of child neglect against you. Repeated child neglect or mistreatment allegations require a complaint to the sheriff under Penal Law 240.50. You can't file a civil suit until the underlying criminal case is closed.

What is the code 42.42 in PA? ›

Reports of suspected child abuse shall be made by telephone and by written report. (1) Oral reports. Oral reports of suspected child abuse shall be made immediately by telephone to ChildLine, (800) 932-0313. (2) Written reports.

When did mandatory reporting become law in PA? ›

Provisions of the Act of December 12, 1973 (P.L. 397, No. 141), known as the "Educator Discipline Act," including mandatory reporting requirements.

Are teachers in PA mandated reporters? ›

As educators, PSEA members have mandatory reporting requirements involving suspected cases of physical and sexual abuse of students.

How long is mandated reporter training good for in PA? ›

Every employee of a school entity and its independent contractors who have direct contact with children must complete a minimum of three hours of training every five years.

What are my rights with child Protective Services in PA? ›

You have the right to work with CPS to develop a family service plan (FSP), which outlines the steps you will take to improve the home environment and your interactions with your child. This may include completing parenting classes, anger management classes, drug or alcohol treatment, or therapy.

What is considered an unfit parent in PA? ›

What makes a parent unfit in PA? Any records proving mental or physical condition that makes the parent incapable of providing care for their child as well as criminal charges and drug use count as strong evidence to show that the parent is not fit to be awarded the custody.

Do you have to let CPS in your house in Pennsylvania? ›

Make Sure They Have a Warrant

One thing you should ask is if the CPS caseworker has a warrant to enter your home. If they do not, they cannot legally come into your home and take your child. A CPS worker may lie about having a warrant so you open the door.

What are substantiated allegations of abuse? ›

Substantiated. Allegations may be substantiated if an investigation determines that there is a preponderance of evidence to support the allegation. Preponderance of the evidence means that a review of the evidence shows the abuse and/or neglect was more likely than not to have occurred.

What information must be provided in written reports of abuse? ›

Name, date of birth or approximate age, address and phone number, and relationship to the child victim of the person you suspect is abusing/neglecting the child. Also include, if possible, the present location of this person and whether or not they currently have access to the child. Any other information requested.

Which type of abuse is the most underreported? ›

Sexual abuse may be the most underreported form of abuse because adults often lure children into secrecy, shame and silence.

Who are mandatory reporters in Pennsylvania? ›

Mandated reporters generally are people who come into contact with children as a part of their employment, practice of their profession and, sometimes, as volunteers in child-serving programs.

Which of the following is an example of a mandatory reporter? ›

These individuals, include (but are not limited to) school teachers or employees, counselors, therapists, doc- tors, nurses, clergy, and administrators or employees of childcare agencies. They are considered “mandated reporters,” and are required by law to report suspected cases of abuse or neglect.

Which of the following would be considered a permissive reporter? ›

What is a Permissive Reporter? Voluntary reporters are also referred to as “permissive reporters.” A permissive reporter is any person who reports concerns of child abuse, elder abuse, or domestic abuse—regardless of their profession.

What is the most severe form of child neglect? ›

Typically, emotional neglect is more difficult to assess than other types of neglect, but is thought to have more severe and long-lasting consequences than physical neglect.

What styles of parenting are neglectful? ›

Uninvolved parenting — also called neglectful parenting, which obviously carries more negative connotations — is a style of parenting where parents don't respond to their child's needs or desires beyond the basics of food, clothing, and shelter.

Is not bathing a child neglect? ›

Physical neglect refers to the failure to provide a child with necessities of life, such as food and clothing. Medical neglect is a failure of caregivers to meet a child's basic health care needs, such as not brushing teeth daily, bathing a child and or taking children to doctor visits when needed.

What is the most famous child neglect case? ›

Described by authorities in New York City as the "worst case of child abuse they had ever seen," the life and death of Elisa Izquierdo first made city, then national headlines when it became clear that the city's child welfare system (now the Administration for Children's Services) had missed numerous opportunities to ...

What are the 5 most common types abuse? ›

Types of domestic violence or abuse
  • psychological.
  • physical.
  • sexual.
  • financial.
  • emotional.

What is the most difficult form of child maltreatment to prove? ›

Emotional or psychological abuse

Emotional abuse often coexists with other forms of abuse, and it is the most difficult to identify. Many of its potential consequences, such as learning and speech problems and delays in physical development, can also occur in children who are not being emotionally abused.

What is emotional abandonment in childhood? ›

Child emotional neglect (CEN) is the parent's failure to meet their child's emotional needs during the early years. It involves unresponsive, unavailable, and limited emotional interactions between that person and the child. Children's emotional needs for affection, support, attention, or competence are ignored.

How do you tell if a child is emotionally neglected? ›

Signs of emotional neglect in children may include:
  1. lack of confidence.
  2. social withdrawal.
  3. emotional volatility.
  4. difficulty controlling emotions.
  5. challenges in making and maintaining relationships.
  6. age-inappropriate behavior.
  7. depression.
  8. anxiety.
Oct 24, 2022

What is authoritarian parenting? ›

Authoritarian parenting is extremely strict. Parents expect kids to follow the rules with no discussion or compromising. Parents use this approach for many reasons. Many choose this style because of their nationality, culture or ethical backgrounds dictate it.

What is parental indulgence? ›

Permissive Parenting

Permissive or Indulgent parents mostly let their children do what they want, and offer limited guidance or direction. They are more like friends than parents. Their discipline style is the opposite of strict. They have limited or no rules and mostly let children figure problems out on their own.

What is the most effective parenting style? ›

The parenting style that is best for children is the supportive style. It's a style where you are warm and loving and you're affectionate but you also create structure and boundaries for your children, and you guide their behaviour.

What age should parents stop showering with child? ›

In general, I would say that by the age of 8 or 9 years-10 at the latest-most children have developed enough of a sense of personal boundaries and body space that they no longer want to shower with a parent or bathe with a sibling of the opposite sex.

What does a neglectful mother look like? ›

Here are some neglectful parenting examples: Show no warmth or affection towards their children. Act in an indifferent and distant way. They do not help or take care of their children's basic needs.

Is not showering self neglect? ›

Self-neglect is a behavioral condition in which an individual neglects to attend to their basic needs, such as personal hygiene, appropriate clothing, feeding, or tending appropriately to any medical conditions they have.


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